////PH222/PH415 Exam Notes

PH222/PH415 Exam Notes

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PH222 / PH415 Exam Notes covers week 1, 2, 3, 8 and 15. There are 5 unique documents and a total of 81 pages.

  • These notes are on week 1: Equality, Freedom of Association and Immigration. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of readings. They look at different justifications of open/closed borders policy (right to exclude), from the perspective of different philosophical currents – from Rawls' original position, to utilitarianism, global egalitarianism, libertarianism. It also looks at more nuanced cases like the right to asylum seeking.
  • These notes are on week 2: Global justice and foreign aid. They focus on the literature on global distributive justice, which highlights arguments in favor of global equality of opportunity – the fact that the moral arbitrariness of birth justifies efforts to mitigate its impact on opportunities globally and alleviate the North/South gap in terms of resources, development and thus education and welfare of present and future generations.
  • These notes are on week 3: Torture & related normative questions. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of main readings. They look at the validity of claims of moral absolutism about torture, in comparison to moral absolutism on killing – which is unreasonable, given examples of self-defense & other. Such questions about torture are put in hypothetical contexts like 'the ticket time bomb' scenario where some type of interrogational torture could be seen as 'morally permissible' and looks at how such justifications have allowed terror states in contemporary history to consolidate their power and endure.
  • These notes are on week 8: Risks & identified vs. unidentified victims. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of main readings. They conceptualize the Identified Person Bias (or effect) and the consequent 'rule of rescue' through evidence like the Chilean miners' case or through similar questions and debates in the fields of medicine, health and psychology. Some of the explanatory findings include Railton's 'Dual-Process' models of the mind (the power of emotions vs. rational reasoning) and how they generally affect choice and policy making.
  • These notes are on week 15: Collective vs. Individual responsibility & distributive blame. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of main readings. First, we look at whether we can conceive of groups as agents, then the different criteria that make an agent responsible and whether a group (as opposed to the individuals who compose that group) is fit to be held responsible (Pettit and others) – the problem of 'many hands' (Thompson). And if so, whether there is even a point, or a moral/normative problem around holding a group responsible, as opposed to the individuals who make up that group. They also highlight alternative approaches to pure collective responsibility, but a hybrid of different approaches. Evidence through examples like the Bush administrations' handling of Katrina.

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PH222 / PH415 Exam Notes covers week 1, 2, 3, 8 and 15. There are 5 unique documents and a total of 81 pages.

  • These notes are on week 1: Equality, Freedom of Association and Immigration. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of readings. They look at different justifications of open/closed borders policy (right to exclude), from the perspective of different philosophical currents – from Rawls’ original position, to utilitarianism, global egalitarianism, libertarianism. It also looks at more nuanced cases like the right to asylum seeking.
  • These notes are on week 2: Global justice and foreign aid. They focus on the literature on global distributive justice, which highlights arguments in favor of global equality of opportunity – the fact that the moral arbitrariness of birth justifies efforts to mitigate its impact on opportunities globally and alleviate the North/South gap in terms of resources, development and thus education and welfare of present and future generations.
  • These notes are on week 3: Torture & related normative questions. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of main readings. They look at the validity of claims of moral absolutism about torture, in comparison to moral absolutism on killing – which is unreasonable, given examples of self-defense & other. Such questions about torture are put in hypothetical contexts like ‘the ticket time bomb’ scenario where some type of interrogational torture could be seen as ‘morally permissible’ and looks at how such justifications have allowed terror states in contemporary history to consolidate their power and endure.
  • These notes are on week 8: Risks & identified vs. unidentified victims. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of main readings. They conceptualize the Identified Person Bias (or effect) and the consequent ‘rule of rescue’ through evidence like the Chilean miners’ case or through similar questions and debates in the fields of medicine, health and psychology. Some of the explanatory findings include Railton’s ‘Dual-Process’ models of the mind (the power of emotions vs. rational reasoning) and how they generally affect choice and policy making.
  • These notes are on week 15: Collective vs. Individual responsibility & distributive blame. They include past exam essay questions and summaries of main readings. First, we look at whether we can conceive of groups as agents, then the different criteria that make an agent responsible and whether a group (as opposed to the individuals who compose that group) is fit to be held responsible (Pettit and others) – the problem of ‘many hands’ (Thompson). And if so, whether there is even a point, or a moral/normative problem around holding a group responsible, as opposed to the individuals who make up that group. They also highlight alternative approaches to pure collective responsibility, but a hybrid of different approaches. Evidence through examples like the Bush administrations’ handling of Katrina.

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81

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5

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